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GLOSSARY: Terms and Abbreviations used at ODR

Discussion in 'Forum Policies' started by Info, Feb 18, 2009.

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  1. Info

    Info Administrator

    Below are definitions of many of the terms and Internet lingo you will find thru out this board which you may find helpful while reading or posting.


    AA= Alcoholics Anonymous
    Abuse= Excessive use of a substance in a way it was not meant to be used or not as prescribed. Not necessarily the same as addiction.
    Acute= Of abrupt onset.Acute often also connotes an illness that is of short duration, rapidly progressive, and in need of urgent care. "Acute" is a measure of the time scale of a disease and is in contrast to "subacute" and "chronic." "Subacute" indicates longer duration or less rapid change.
    AD or A/D= Antidepressants
    Addict= A person with an addictive disorder.
    Addiction= A behavioral syndrome characterized by the repeated, compulsive seeking or use of a substance despite adverse social, psychological, and/or physical consequences, and a need for an increased amount of the substance as time goes on, to achieve the same effect. Addiction is often (but not always) accompanied by physical dependence, a withdrawal syndrome, and tolerance.
    A primary, chronic, neurobiologic disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations.
    Affinity= The strength with which a drug binds to its receptor is termed its affinity. The degree to which a drug activates its receptors is termed its intrinsic activity. Affinity for a receptor and activation of the receptor are two different qualities of a drug. A drug can have high affinity for a receptor but not activate the receptor (e.g., an antagonist). Mu opioid agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists can vary in their affinity.
    Agonist= Drugs that activate receptors in the brain. Agonists bind to receptors and turn them on. Full mu opioid agonists activate mu receptors. Increasing doses of full agonists produce increasing effects until a maximum effect is reached or the receptor is fully activated. Opioids with the greatest abuse potential are full agonists (morphine, heroin, methadone, oxycodone, hydromorphone).
    Antagonist= A substance that tends to nullify the effect of another. A drug that binds to a receptor without eliciting a response).
    ATM= At The Moment
    ATT= At This Time
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    Benzos= Benzodiazapines(Valium, Klonopin, Xanax. Not wise to be used in combination with Buprenorphine.
    BB= Big Book of Alcholics Anonymous
    BF/GF= Boyfriend/Girlfriend
    BMT= Buprenorphine Maintenance Therapy(including Suboxone/Subutex=SMT)
    Boundary= An invisible though often effective barrier within a relationship that governs the level of contact. Boundaries can appropriately shape and regulate relationships.
    BTW= By the Way
    Bup,Bupe= buprenorpine/ brand names- Suboxone, Subutex, Buprenex, Temgesic.
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    Chronic= Of a long duration: a chronic illness persists for weeks, months, or even for life. "Chronic" indicates indefinite duration or virtually no change.
    Craving= Physiological need for a substance. Powerful desire for a substance that cannot be ignored.
    Craving (formerly called psychological dependence) is an intense desire to re-experience the effects of a psychoactive substance. Craving is the cause of relapse after long periods of abstinence.
    Codependence= A state of being overly concerned with the problems of another, to the detriment of one’s own wants and needs.
    Cold Turkey= Quitting drugs on one’s own with no medical help. Abruptly discontinuing drug use in an effort to quit long term. This is only successful in less then 2% of the people who quit opioids “cold turkey”. One of the symptoms of withdrawal is "goose flesh" and looks like a "cold turkey".
    Compulsive=
    Performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to an actual reward or pleasure. A behavior that is overpowering, repeated, and often irrational.
    performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to an actual reward or pleasure.
    CT= Cold Turkey (see defintion above).
     
  2. spring

    spring Administrator

    Denial= A common reaction of people with substance use disorders who, when confronted with the existence of those disorders, deny that they have a substance abuse problem and/or have lost control of it. This is a complex reaction that is the product of psychological and physiological factors. It is not necessarily a deliberate, willful act on the part of the person who is abusing substances, but rather can be a set of defenses and distortions in thinking caused by the use of substances
    Dependence (Physical)= Normal physical state of adaptation to a substance, the absence of which produces symptoms and signs of withdrawal. It is possible to be physically dependent on a substance without being addicted to it. Physical dependence is a state of adaptation that is manifested by a drug class specific withdrawal syndrome that can be produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, decreasing blood level of the drug, or administration of an antagonist.
    Detox= Pertaining to addiction; it is generally a medically supervised treatment for alcohol or drug addiction designed to purge the body of intoxicating or addictive substances. Such a program is used as a first step in overcoming physiological or psychological addiction.
    Disease= a disorder with recognizable signs and often having a known cause; dis-ease, the opposite of ease, when something is wrong with a bodily function. In the context of addiction, some people reject the fact that addiction is a disease, despite that top medical organizations proclaimed it true over 50 years ago.
    DOC= Drug of Choice,(abbreviation can also mean Dr./Doctor)
    Dopamine= is a chemical naturally produced in the body. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter which provides feelings of euphoria and well being.
    Endorphins are naturally occurring opioids that activate the dopamine pathway. All addictive substances activate the dopamine pathway. A person takes a drug of abuse, be it marijuana or cocaine or even alcohol, activating the same brain circuits as do behaviors linked to survival, such as eating, bonding and sex. The drug causes a surge in levels of dopamine, which results in feelings of pleasure. The brain remembers this pleasure and wants it repeated.
    If the brain senses that too much dopamine is being released it will adapt and inhibit dopamine release in an effort to normalize brain function. Once dopamine release is inhibited the external addictive substance is now required to maintain normal levels of dopamine.
    DSM= The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", published by the American Psychiatric Association is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States.
    Dysphoria= Opposite of euphoria.
    ~~~~
    Embolism= An obstruction in a blood vessel due to a blood clot or other foreign matter that gets stuck while traveling through the bloodstream.
    Enabling= As it applies to the disease of addiction, can be defined as doing for someone, in an attempt to help, those things they could or should be doing for themselves, thus actually making it easier for them to continue in the progression of the disease.
    Endorphins= name is derived from combining the words "endogenous morphine", which literally means "morphine produced naturally in the body". Endorphins are opium-like substances produced naturally in the brain which give a feeling of well-being and are natural painkillers. Production of endorphins is stimulated by many natural circumstances, including profound exercise.
    ESH= Experience, Strength, Hope

    ETOH= alcohol. Term often used amongst health care professionals.
    Euphoria= Psychological feeling of well being and extreme happiness.
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    FWIW= For What it's Worth
    ~~~~
    Habit= as in "drug habit", an outdated term for addiction or physical dependence. Calling substance use disorders 'a habit' denies the medical nature of the condition and implies that resolution of the problem is simply a matter of willpower. Cigarette companies prefer this term instead of “addiction”.
    H.A.L.T.= Hungry Angry Lonely Tired
    Hepatitis= is inflammation of the liver and can be caused by infections with various organisms, including bacteria, viruses (Hepatitis A, B, C, etc.), or parasites. Chemical toxins such as alcohol, drugs, or poisonous mushrooms can also damage the liver and cause it to become inflamed.
    A rare but extremely dangerous cause of hepatitis results from overdose of acetaminophen (Tylenol), which can be deadly. In addition, immune cells in the body may attack the liver and cause autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatitis may resolve quickly (acute hepatitis), or cause long-term disease (chronic hepatitis). In some instances, progressive liver damage, liver cancer, or liver failure may result.
    HP= Higher Power
    Hydro= Hydrocodone
    ~~~~
    IMHO= In My Humble(or)Honest Opinion
    Impulsive= Acting on a whim rather than by necessity, with no reason or forethought of the consequences[SUP]. [/SUP][SUP][/SUP]Impulsive actions typically are poorly conceived, prematurely expressed, risky, or inappropriate to the situation that often result in undesirable consequences
    IOP= Intensive Outpatient treatment
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    JK= Just kidding
    JMO= Just My Opinion
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    LOL= Laughing Out Loud
    LMAO= Laughing My A*ss Off
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    Maintenance= A long stabilization period, though not always or necessarily for life. The patient should remain on the lowest effective dose for an indefinite amount of time which allows them to prepare and make the necessary life-changes that would otherwise make long term abstinence unlikely and sometimes impossible for some.
    Methadone= Used as a pain reliever and as part of drug addiction detoxification and maintenance programs, offering very similar effects as heroin, morphine, etc but has a longer duration of effect.
    Mitigate= To make less severe, serious, or painful
    MMT = Methadone Maintenance Therapy
    Mithridatism = Pronunced (MITH-ri-day-tiz-um)The act of developing tolerance to a poison by taking gradually increasing doses of it.
    Mu Opioid Receptor= receptor on the surface membrane of nerve cells that mediates opioid analgesia, tolerance, and addiction through drug-induced activation. When an opioid agonist or partial agonist (Buprenorphine) binds to a mu opioid receptor, a series of other proteins associated with the mu receptor-signaling pathway becomes activated. Other opioid receptors are the delta and kappa receptors.
    ~~~~
    NA= Narcotics Anonymous
    Naloxone= An alkaloid pure opiate antagonist of morphine to reverse the effects of narcotics. It prevents or reverses the effects of opioids.
    Naltrexone= an opiate antagonist similar to naloxone but with longer action and greater potency. Works by blocking opioid receptors in the brain, without activating them, therefore blocking the effects of opioids. Naltrexone has a High affinity to the Mu receptor, yet not as high as buprenorphine.
    Neurotransmitter= A molecule secreted by neurons for communicating nerve signal to other neurons, to muscles or to glands.
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    OBOT= Office Based Opioid Treatment.
    Obsessive= Unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations
    OCs or Oxys= Oxycontin or oxycodone
    ODR= Opiate Detox & Recovery (thats us!)
    Opiate= An opium-containing drug: a drug that contains opium or an opium derivative such as morphine or heroin. A medication or illegal drug that is either derived from the opium poppy, or that mimics the effect of an opiate.
    OP= Out Patient
    Opioid= A synthetic narcotic such as methadone, that has opiate-like activities but is not derived from opium. A synthetic narcotic that resembles the naturally occurring opiates. Any of a group of naturally occurring peptides, e.g., enkephalins, that bind at or otherwise influence opiate receptors, either with opiate-like or opiate antagonist effects.
    OTC = Over The Counter; Non-prescription drugs that can be bought off the shelf.
    ORT = Opiate Replacement Therapy is the medical procedure of replacing an addictive full agonist opiate such as heroin with a longer acting full agonist opiate such as methadone.

    The essence of addiction is uncontrollable compulsive behavior. The first goal of addiction treatment is to stop this dangerous addictive behavior.
    The term replacement instead of "treatment" suggests little change besides a move from illegal addiction to legal addiction. The addict is still tied to a drug, made to stand in line as a consumer waiting for their daily score. New drug contacts are available for the asking. Highest doses are often strongly recommended because abstinance is not the goal.

    However, with Buprenorphine therapy as a short term treatment, along with a comprehensive long term treatment plan, the dangerous addictive behavior is stopped not replaced. There is no daily run, also no euphoric high for most. Cravings and withdrawal are under control so the addict can focus on change.
    OTOH= On the Other Hand
     
  3. spring

    spring Administrator

    PAWS= Post Acute Withdrawal Syndrome--Withdrawal symptoms that continue after the initial acute withdrawal passes. The symptoms are less severe but can be long lasting. The symptoms are the result of long-term changes to the brain due to addiction. It is these withdrawal symptoms that drive many to relapse even months after drug use ends.
    Percs= Percodan, Percocette
    Placebo= an inactive pill, liquid, or powder that has no effect. In clinical trials, experimental treatments are often compared with placebos to assess the treatment's effectiveness. Some of the participants in the control group will receive a placebo instead of the active drug.
    PTSD= Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
    Psychological Dependence= A craving and compulsion to use a drug or activity that is psychologically rather than physically based which often leads to abuse. For example, compulsive gambling is a purely psychological dependence.
    ~~~~
    Receptor= A neuron to which a molecule can bind activating the receptor and eliciting a response in the cell.
    Relapse= Occurs when a person is affected again by a condition that affected them in the past, in this case an addiction to a drug. A recurrence of symptoms after a period of remission.
    RP = Relapse Prevention
    Remission= A period of time in which the signs and symptoms of the addiction have disappeared.
    RLS= Restless Leg Syndrome
    ROFLMAO= Rolling on Floor Laughing My *** Off
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    SASTO= Some are Sicker Than Others
    SAT = Substance Abuse Treatment
    SO= Significant Other
    STFU= Shut the "fudge" Up (usually(hopefully) said with affection)
    Sub= Suboxone, Subutex
    Suboxone*= buprenorphine with the added chemcial Naloxone
    Subutex*= buprenorphine only *also known as Sub, bup, bupe*
    SWIM = "Someone Who Isn't Me". It's a sort of token nod to the fact that public forums may be monitored by law enforcement
    ~~~~
    Therapeutic Dependence = Patients with adequate pain relief may demonstrate drug-seeking behaviors because they fear not only the reemergence of pain but perhaps also the emergence of withdrawal symptoms.
    12/12= 12 Steps/12 Traditions of AA/NA
    Trigger= A person, place, thing or event that can result in psychological and then physical relapse.
    Tolerance = A normal neurobiological event characterized by the need to increase the dose over time to obtain the original effect. Higher doses are needed to produce the same effect experienced initially.
    Twelve Steppers= people who seek help from 12 step groups and usually do so as an acknowledgment that all attempts at self-help have failed. Recovery in these support groups is not self-help but the utilization of resources and relationships beyond the self.
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    Urges= Psychological desire for a substance.
    UROD= Ultra Rapid Opioid Detox
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    Vics = Vicodin
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    WD or W/D= Means 'Withdrawal' which is a syndrome consisting of a predictable group of signs and symptoms resulting from abrupt removal of, or a rapid decrease in, the regular dosage of a psychoactive substance. The syndrome is often characterized by over activity of the physiological functions that were suppressed by the drug and depression of the functions that were stimulated by the drug
     
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